Spain faced the largest in its entire democratic history a political crisis. The government of Catalonia, despite the opposition of the Central government, are going to hold a referendum on independence autonomy 1 Oct. It raised only one question: “do you Want Catalonia was an independent state in the form of Republic?” The Spanish government does not intend to recognize the results of the referendum, whatever they were.

The government of Catalonia emphasize that the results of the citizens “will have the full force,” but promised to “act responsibly” in case of victory in the referendum, not commenting on the possibility of a unilateral proclamation of the Catalan Republic. They expect to continue to communicate in a respectful way with the Spanish government and with respect to dialogue. In addition, the government authority stated that the plebiscite is not something reprehensible and criminal as he is trying to present the Spanish authorities.

As Catalonia went to independence: the facts of modern history
Moscow is accused of supporting separatism of Catalonia
2315 polling stations are ready for the referendum
Madrid mobilizes guard and the police: the seized ballot papers, ballot boxes, there are searches and arrests
Madrid can apply the 155-th article of the Constitution to prevent a referendum

Catalunya (Catalonia Autonomous region) is an Autonomous community within Spain in the North-East of the Iberian Peninsula, which includes the provinces of Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, Tarragona. It covers an area of 32 thousand sq km (6% of the territory of Spain, approximately equal to the area of Denmark or Belgium).

The capital of autonomy is Barcelona. The port of Barcelona is one of the largest in Europe: at the same time it can go to 1700 vessels.

Catalonia is home to 7.5 million people – about 18% of the population of Spain, which is about 46.5 million people.

The official languages of the Autonomous Catalan, Spanish, Occitan (Aran language). Catalan language and culture Catalonia study in 147 universities in the world, including in Russia (Moscow state University, the Cervantes Institute). It is common in Spanish and French part of Catalonia (currently the pyrénées-Orientales is known as Northern Catalonia), Andorra (the only official language), in the Autonomous regions of Valencia, the Balearic Islands, Aragon and Alghero Italian Sardinia. Thus, Catalan is spoken by over 8 million people.

Catalonia has its own government, the Generalitat, which is considered the successor to 1359 Cortes (Corts Catalans, caste representative Assembly). The government consists of a Parliament (135 members), Executive Council (government) and several government organizations. Members of the Generalitat elected by universal suffrage for four years. Currently Chairman of the Executive Board is Carles Pujdeme.

Catalonia is the most economically developed industrial region of Spain. Here developed engineering, chemical, textile and food industry. In the agricultural sector is allocated winemaking, horticulture and floriculture. But the economic crisis has provoked in Catalonia dissatisfaction with the actions of the Central government, which was draining the autonomy of tax payments to the Central budget. Supporters of separation believe that Catalonia “feeds” the most backward regions of Spain, as tax deductions of Catalonia exceed revenues from the state budget.

As Catalonia was independence: the facts of modern history

Catalonia previously tried to declare independence from Spain. Back in the 1930-ies such attempts of Parliament was recognized the Republican government as illegal and the instigators-the separatists were arrested. The repression of the Catalans during the Franco regime contributed to the movement of separatism. The Autonomous status of Catalonia was only in 1979. Autonomy now has its own government, with residence in Barcelona.

In 2009, the authority was unofficial referendum on independence, in which more than 90% of the population voted to secede from Spain and create a new state in Europe. In 2013 the Catalan Parliament adopted a Declaration of sovereignty and was appointed on November 9, 2014 a survey of citizens about the Department, abstaining from the referendum, because the Spanish Parliament banned its holding on 13 April 2014.

Then a survey of citizens showed that for independence receives more than 80% of participating with a turnout of 2.25 million people. A year later, on 9 November 2015, the Parliament of Catalonia approved a resolution on the establishment of an independent Republic, according to which by the end of 2017 is to be formed government structures, and composed the text of the new Constitution of Catalonia. In December 2015, Spain’s constitutional court annulled the effect of this resolution.

6 September 2017, the Parliament of Catalonia adopted a law on holding a referendum on 1 October. But the constitutional court of Spain recognized it illegal and stopped its action. National police, Civil guard and police of Catalonia were instructed to stop “crimes against the form of government”.

At the moment Madrid continues to do everything possible to prevent the holding of the referendum.

The Prosecutor’s office instructed the law enforcement agencies to seize any materialsrelated to the referendum, as well as to seal and take control of all polling stations. Sites with at least some respect to the plebiscite, immediately frozen, and those involved in its organization faces litigation. However, authorities of the Autonomous region confidently say that the vote will take place.

According to the Catalan authorities, organization and conduct of the referendum legal. This informed the Parliament of the autonomy approved two laws on referendum. The first creates a legal framework for the holding of a plebiscite on independence, and the second to regulate the exit of Catalonia from Spain in the event of victory in the referendum supporters of a break with the Kingdom.

Central government refers to the Constitution and said that the part of the population, that is, the Catalans can not decide the future of the whole of Spain in General. The basic law of the state notes that the referendum is appointed by the king on the proposal of the Prime Minister, pre-approved by the Congress of deputies. A separate Autonomous community could not hold a legally valid plebiscite without the consent of Madrid.

Madrid can apply the 155-th article of the Constitution to prevent a referendum

Madrid currently employ mechanisms that enable it to prevent the referendum. In Catalonia are searched, confiscated ballot boxes and ballot papers are detained responsible for the organization of the plebiscite of persons who start lawsuits.

However, this is not all possible for Spain to leverage on autonomy. In addition to arrests Catalan leaders, one of the most radical, although entirely legitimate steps could be the use of 155th article of the Constitution of the country, which has never been used, notes TASS. It States that “if an Autonomous community does not fulfill obligations provided for by the Constitution or other laws, or his actions seriously damage the national interests of Spain,” the government of the Kingdom “may, with the consent of the absolute majority of the Senate, to take the necessary measures to implement the Autonomous community of the said commitments compulsory”. In other words, this article allows in fact to deprive Catalonia autonomy.

The use of such mechanism must be due to extraordinary circumstances, however, the current situation could become.

Passing in the autonomy of the protest so far has not led to serious disturbances and did not collect too a large number of participants. But tough measures in Madrid for the suppression of the referendum could provoke demonstrations that would end in clashes with the police.

Radical representatives of the authorities of the Autonomous region has urged people of Catalonia to come out in protest if Madrid will let the plebiscite to be held.

According to the Spanish government, a referendum on 1 October will not (meaning that there will be legitimate plebiscite). And in the voting in settlements of Catalunya on Sunday 1 October, no one doubts.

What will be the outcome of the vote on the referendum for Spain, while few can predict.

According to the results of the plebiscite is likely to win, supporters of a break with Spain. Madrid, of course, does not recognize the results of voting, which it considers illegal, and will go to court. In response, the autonomy can go on street protests, which are able to escalate into clashes with law enforcement. Yes and next steps the regional authorities after the vote are not clear: they will decide whether to declare independence and the imminent exit from the Kingdom or be ready to negotiate that Madrid, however, still does not agree.

The most realistic scenario presented a lengthy trial, in which the organizers of the referendum may be removed from office, impose heavy fines, to imprison even the head of the government of Catalonia Carles Pokdemon and authority to call new elections.

Barcelona intends to secede from Spain: the end is close, but the result of the referendum on the independence of the unpredictable 29.09.2017

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