Student at the University of Frankfurt am main, Heerlen, the Bold under the guidance of Professor Irina Nevskaya in his bachelor thesis he deciphered the old Mongolian manuscript stored in the collections of the National Museum of the Republic of Altai. Anokhin. As it turned out, the document is an exercise in writing as well as excerpts from the Sutra of the “Key of reason” (“Oyuun tohour”), which is owned by or attributed to the founder of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan.

The instruction of women, friends, good and bad deeds and many other scientists believe, was actually created a great conqueror, and subsequently to the Sutra was done adding. “Key reason” passed from mouth to mouth, the text was familiar to the entire Mongolian population. “This work belongs to the genre of Surganov, i.e., sermons, teachings. It praised the diligence and courage. It was used in the education of children in order to instill moral norms and rules of conduct. It was copied many times and, of course, been changed,” – noted in the Museum.

“Key reason” is present in many meetings in old Mongolian script language. Only the St. Petersburg branch of the RAS has more than two dozen, in addition to a manuscript on Euratom in the record “clear email”. In Ulaanbaatar there are several manuscripts, including one considered to be complete.

Found in the Altai Republic, the text was transcribed and philological and linguistically treated in a bachelor thesis done by a student Heerlen, the Bold under the guidance of Professor Irina Nevskaya University of Frankfurt am main (Germany). The study showed that the manuscript can be dated to the first half of the XVIII century, i.e. it is one of the oldest known to science, noted in Gorno-Altaysk.

Many fragments of the sutras and the first page of the manuscript was lost. The paper starts with a presentation of the classical Mongolian alphabet under the heading “Thirty white letters” as well as old Mongolian alphabet. This is followed by two pages of exercises in writing and, in fact, excerpts from the “Key of reason”.

The text is written, apparently, by three people with different styles – one is very beautiful, apparently, teacher or already a skilled scribe, and two handwriting belong to the less skilled scribes. They wrote partly bamboo, partly with a brush. Classic Mongolian letter written from top to bottom, the rows located from left to right, told in the Museum.

In the presentation of unknown scribes the wisdom of Genghis Khan sounds like:

The man who can’t be trusted, you can never tell of the unseen.
Do not give in to the persuasion of a bad person.
Don’t take the woman too seriously.
Do not exhort his son through the servant.
Not check with insidious (envious) person.
Do not break, approved by many people.
To sin (do not endorse other people) actions not get cravings.
Virtuous deeds do not fix the obstacles.
To death do not forget the right words to your best friend.
Don’t say bad words to his inseparable friend (you never forget).

“In 2018, the national Museum of the Altai Republic named after A. V. Anokhin celebrates its century anniversary, the Museum’s biography this year added another amazing fact: the decoded one of the earliest manuscripts of the Sutra “Key intelligence” on old Mongolian language. In this regard, we focus on what really matters: without conducting research the cultural and historical values is not possible. And it is the study and the new understanding of the collections and activities of the Museum eliminates the possibility of false attributions and interpretations, and consequently, enhances the cognitive and educational value of the Museum’s collections and allows them to enter into a cultural revolution. Otherwise, museums will fulfil the role of a warehouse, and even rarities. And scientific staff will become ordinary keepers or storekeepers,” – said the Director of the Museum Rimma Erkinova.

Recall, the most famous and studied as a masterpiece of the Mongolian literature is “Secret history of the Mongols”, composed in 1240, during the reign of Ogodei Khan, the third son of Genghis Khan and his successor. Unique historiographical monument is a valuable source on the history of the Mongolian state, its founder and the history of Central Asia in the XII-XIII centuries. The scientific community met with the document thanks to the head of the Russian spiritual mission in China Archimandrite Palladium (Kafarov), who bought Mongol-Chinese original in the Palace of the Beijing library and published the translation.



German scientists have deciphered the instruction of Genghis Khan about women, friends and trust 24.10.2016

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