In Russia from 156 indigenous languages that existed in the nineteenth century, 7 died, dozens facing the same fate
The Council on human rights (HRC) under the President of the Russian Federation prepared a report on the problems of preservation and development of the language and culture of the so-called small peoples of Russia. Soon it will be transferred to the presidential administration. According to human rights activists, about fifty peoples of the Russian Federation today are under threat of extinction.
Their possible death is not only a cultural but also a political problem. In the letter, human rights defenders States that the Russian authorities are not interested in the preservation of national dialects. For this reason, for example, was prohibited from functioning fully Karelian-speaking nurseries in the Republic of Karelia. This ignores the international experience of bilingualism.
Their forecasts human rights activists confirm the data of Federal service of state statistics, which indicates that of the 156 indigenous languages of Russia, which existed in the nineteenth century, seven are already extinct and dozens more facing the same fate. These languages are included in the published UNESCO’s “Atlas of endangered languages” of the 2500 languages and dialects.
So, yugsk language in 2002, knew of 131 people, but today it no one owns. The language of the people of the Yuga (Eugen), together with the ket language is a part of the yugsk-pampacolca group of the Yenisei family. Media it lived in the upper Keti – the right inflow of Ob. Writing yugsk language never had. Now this language is considered extinct.
Irretrievably lost Ainu language. Ainu in Russia lived in the lower reaches of the Amur river, in the South of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. Currently, the Ainu were basically only in Japan. In Russia according to the results of the 2010 census was 109 Ainu. However, in the Ainu language, they do not say. The language died out in Russia many decades ago.
The Ubykh language, formerly spoken in the region of the current Lazarevsky, Central and Khosta districts of Sochi and is related to the Abkhaz-Adyghe family has disappeared in Russia because of the fact that after the end of the Caucasian war Ubykhs were deported by the Russian government in Turkey. The last native speaker died in Turkey in 1992.
Willinsky (Orok) language, within the southern (nemiscau) subgroup of Tungus branch of Manchu-Tungusic languages of the Altaic family, owns not more than 10 people throughout Russia. It can be attributed to endangered languages, but several enthusiasts in the village of Val Nogliki district of the Sakhalin region give the children lessons in their native language, learn ABC multinskogo language, released in 2008.
The Oroch language isspoken in the Khabarovsk Krai and received writing only at the beginning of 2000-ies, I know about eight people. The language is on the verge of extinction.
Several languages of the small peoples of Russia have a steady tendency to reduce the number of their carriers.
However, the fact that dying languages can be saved, is proved by the example of the Nivkh language – a language isolate (that is, not belonging to any known language family). Carrier in Russia, according to the 2010 census, there were no more than 198 people, 118 of which lived in the Sakhalin region. More recently, this language was disappearing right before our eyes, and it seemed to do nothing was impossible – for four very different from each other dialect in total accounted for only about 100 carriers.
The situation began to change in the researchers from the University of Helsinki, which is already two years engaged in the revitalization (or revival) of the Nivkh language. First, they began to carry out very simple actions aimed at enhancing the prestige of the Nivkh language: hung in local stores the price tags on Nivkh, wrote at bus stops Nivkh names of settlements, has organized several programs “teacher – student”, when a full carrier Nivkh meets regularly with several not originally speaking in Nevski students.
Similarly, including using visual AIDS, reborn in the capital of the Republic of Mordovia disappearing Moksha and Erzya languages. Signs with names of streets in Saransk now in three languages, including Russian. In Moksha and Erzya languages in Mordovia published literature and periodicals, they are studied in schools and universities. Some radio stations of the ether lead to the Moksha and Erzya languages.
However, by some law enthusiasts and local authorities without an effective government policy situation in the case of support for indigenous peoples to change will not succeed.
Most of endangered languages are still not given the status of regional or local, according to “Nezavisimaya Gazeta”.
More than a decade in Russia there was talk about creating a red book indigenous peoples. However, the statement says, the authorities do not even want to help those who presumably could get into it.
In the Murmansk and Arkhangelsk regions home to the people of Pomerania, speaking in the language of the “Pomor dialects”. However, none of these subjects had not taken the initiative of any nation in the list. Him, despite repeated requests by the HRC, can not get, and two small Crimean people, Karaites and Krymchaks.
Now human rights activists are asking the President to adopt the law “On protection of national and linguistic diversity of the peoples of Russia”, which would have added legislation that protects the indigenous inhabitants of Siberia and the Far East.
In addition, the HRC proposes to classify indigenous peoples in several different categories. The first two they propose to designate as being “dysfunctional” and “extremely disadvantaged”.
We are talking about Nations where the number of native speakers of the dialect has been steadily decreasing: disadvantaged, there are more than 10 thousand, and very unfavorable up to 10 thousand For those and others it is proposed to equip the various regions and settlements. But at the same time to prepare teachers “to teach in national languages”, and in preschool institutions and schools be forced to teach your native language, literature, history and culture of the people.
The third category the Council proposes to classify the Nations on the verge of extinction, that is, where the number of native speakers is 100 to 1 thousand people and has no tendency to increase. For them, besides the already mentioned initiatives, it is proposed to introduce an incentive payment to each citizen, not to consume alcoholic beverages, in the amount of 0,5 of the minimum wage. We are talking about the introduction of a progressive scale of payments to parents (depending on number of children) with payment of 1 million rubles. for the fourth and each subsequent child. The HRC also insists on exemption from taxes of the enterprises of small peoples, leading traditional economic activities.
Another category is proposed to include reversible and irreversible extinct peoples. Regarding the latter, the memory of them want to immortalize in museums and the literature. For reversible extinct, according to the Council, it is necessary to create an interdepartmental and interdisciplinary working groups “for complete descriptions of the languages and cultures of these peoples” and to prepare teachers for teaching in national languages.
In addition, in the document there are a number of common proposals. Among them include in the list of indigenous minorities of Russia, Pomors, the Ainu, Karaites, Krymchaks, etc. to Enter their homes a special position as the adviser of the Governor for the protection of their rights. To create a registry of persons who could become teachers of languages. To provide quotas for training in higher educational institutions. And write books on language, culture and literature of indigenous peoples of Russia at the expense of the budget.