During the anniversary celebrations dedicated to the 110th anniversary of the birth of Dmitri Shostakovich, “Spark” acquainted with the part of the dossier of the American Federal Bureau of investigation (FBI) on the composer. About the documents, dedicated to Shostakovich, the magazine writes Leonid Maksimenkov. Excerpts from the archives of the FBI was granted at the request of the historian on the basis of American law on freedom of information.
Shostakovich traveled to the United States three times. In 1949 he went to the so-called American Congress of workers of science and culture in peace. In 1959, visited the country with a delegation of Soviet musicians. In 1973 the composer had been almost a private visit – he received an honorary doctorate from northwestern University in Evanston (Illinois). Every composer followed closely the FBI.
The main question was, not whether Shostakovich with the Soviet intelligence. Only in 1973 was the verdict: “In the archives of the Bureau does not contain information indicating that the subject and his wife (Irina Antonovna Supinska (Shostakovich). – Approx. NEWSru.com) connected with the Soviet intelligence service”, the article says.
The composer accepted in the United States in different ways, notes Maksimenkov. A year before his first visit to USA at the Shostakovich was accused of “formalism”, “bourgeois decadence”, the “groveling before the West”, then he was expelled from the Moscow Conservatory. However, when the preparation of the Soviet delegation to the American Congress in defense of peace, it became clear that without Shostakovich, whose name was popular all over the world, can not do. First, the composer refused to participate in this trip, but then he called himself Joseph Stalin, and Shostakovich agreed.
Dmitry Dmitrievich was included in the delegation along with writers Alexander Fadeev and Petr Pavlenko, Director Sergei Gerasimov and Mikhail Chiaureli, academician Alexander Oparin and “Secretary of the delegation,” an employee of the Committee of information (Soviet foreign intelligence) I. D. Rojanski.
In the USA scandal. Shostakovich the floor of the Congress said a few words about the importance of music, and an interpreter on his behalf read a text about the cold war, the progressive role of the Soviet Union and of gratitude to the party. In the other auditorium Shostakovich was asked whether he agreed with criticism of Igor Stravinsky, Arnold Schoenberg and Paul Hindemith in the Soviet press, and he was compelled to answer in the affirmative.
In the end, the Soviet delegation of the Congress were deported by U.S. authorities for intervention in the internal Affairs of States.
The second time Shostakovich came to the United States with a delegation of Soviet musicians. in 1959. This time with Dmitri Dmitrievich surrounded careful attention – scandal 10-year-old was formally forgotten, said Leonid Maksimenkov. But the FBI again closely followed by the composer. The reason for this was the publication on 27 August 1959, little notes in the Puerto Rican newspaper the San Juan Diary, where it was argued that Shostakovich brought with him to the U.S. two unknown musicians who “are actually agents of the secret police red”.
As the author notes, probably, the attention of FBI agents drew Boris Yarustovsky, who was listed in the delegation of Soviet composers as a Professor of the Moscow state Conservatory, doctor of arts and a prominent Soviet musicologist. But, in addition, he served as head of sector of the music culture Department of the CPSU Central Committee, and before that major Yarustovsky worked in the Main political Directorate of the Soviet army.
The third visit of Shostakovich overseas took place in June 1973. This time he sailed to the States with his third wife Irina. The official reason for the trip was the award presented to the composer a degree of honorary doctor. But without a policy and special supervision and on this trip too, was not.
The Shostakovich visa issued at the American Embassy in Copenhagen, the composer went to Denmark to receive the award, which is in agreement with the CPSU will give the Soviet peace Committee. Stamp stamped automatically – Dmitry Dmitrievich and his wife were traveling on diplomatic passports. Surprisingly, the U.S. immigration and naturalization have not detected any entry or exit of Shostakovich from the United States.
The answer to the question why it happened, revealed in a declassified pages of the FBI file. In the Memorandum of the state Department on June 11, 1973 States that guests will be in the States under the intergovernmental agreement of the USSR and the USA on the exchanges. The recommendation of the state Department to the FBI: “You must assign the master and Madam Shostakovich the category of “official guests” of the US for the duration of their visit.” Prime Directive: “We came to the conclusion that the harm that may be applied personally to Mr. or Mrs. Shostakovich, as well as their property, can cause damage and foreign relations of the United States.”