Up to 40% of the words from the “Explanatory dictionary of the live great Russian language”, compiled by Vladimir Dahl in the mid-nineteenth century, can be regarded as completely obsolete.
To such conclusion the company “Yandex”, if the necessary research.
“150 years ago, was first fully published the dictionary of Dalja. He became famous as a dictionary that is living, everyday language, spoken in Russia in the mid-nineteenth century. We decided to see how much has since changed the language and compare the words from the dictionary Dahl with those that people use in search queries,” reads the study.
Was used to analyze the words that are in the dictionary Dahl, in the National corpus of the Russian language – an electronic collection of texts in Russian, adapted to the search for the XX century and early XXI century. During the year, users of “Yandex” is searched for the value of 750 thousand of the words national corpus.
“We can say that these are the words which are used in contemporary texts of different genres – from fiction to business documents. Dahl gives the interpretation of approximately 200 thousand words, including almost one fifth (18%) per year was never met in search queries to Yandex”, – stated in the study.
It turned out that in the case and the dictionary match 44% of the words. However, about 20% of them are homonyms – words that are spelled and pronounced the same, but “dulevskom” the value does not exist. For example, “porn” Dahl stands firmly, quickly, securely, “ban” means to wash with water, from the word “bath” and “joke” – a fortified berth number to which to bind the boat. All now familiar “dvach” Dahl means “object, consisting of two parts”.
Another 38% of the words mentioned in the query but absent in the case of the Russian language.
“Gone words (18% or about 40 thousand) of words from the dictionary Dahl can be considered completely obsolete in a year people haven’t been looking through these words and not even asked about their meaning. The proportion of verbs among these words is considerably greater than in the dictionary as a whole, and the proportion of nouns – less. Thus, verbs from the dictionary Dahl become obsolete faster than nouns”, – emphasized in the study.
Out of circulation experts attributed a number of words which interest the user, in terms of their definition. Of words whose meaning is often trying to figure out the queries, turned out to be about 8.5%.
Interestingly, in different regions of Russia people are interested in different words.
“Yandex” has made a linguistic map of Russia, which marked the characteristic of each region of the query words from the dictionary Dahl.
In the Moscow region, among others, often search for the words “kalimati” (to knock), “Segodnya” (baked bread today) and “perestroka” (dash).
Residents of Primorsky Krai are often in search queries use the words: “rathvilly”, “cybunny” (shaky), “Zarudny” (blurred), “veselkovyj” and “Nadolny” (built, redstavleny).
In the Kamchatka region people want to know what “chiruch” (a device for digging and for catching small fish), “cocotte” (shouting at magpies), “Kamchat” (made of damask – silk fabric Chinese), “motorcity” (convert to Islam), “the whip” (whip, whip).
In Kaliningrad a special popularity in the search use the words “Habana” (mischievous, insolent), “pobyty” (everyday), “gotisk” (finally deticate someone), “lyuso” (deceit, deception).
In the Crimea often search for the meaning of the words “jadebullet” (start to put on weight), “shelepina” (shell, husk), “syzivka” (bluish sticky clay), “Kraton” (Raven), “to allocate” (to throw, to beat).
However, obsolescence and withdrawal from the use of words and their replacement by other natural phenomena for any living language.
“Go the words, in particular, because the disappearing objects and phenomena, they are called. They become historicism. Other words no longer used, because there are synonyms, which are preferable,” – said RT, doctor of philological Sciences, Professor Perm national research Polytechnic University Natalia Nesterova.
Earlier, the Russian linguist Evgenii Polivanov noted that “at each stage of language succession are only a partial, relatively small changes,” fundamental changes leading to linguistic generation gap, “conceivable only as the sum of many small changes accumulated over several centuries or even millennia”.
To determine the moment when the word becomes obsolete or goes out of the discharge novoobrazovany neologisms in everyday vocabulary, is quite difficult.
The author of numerous dictionaries, Moscow state University Professor Vladimir Elistratov gave the following example: “for Example, Dahl was the word “levoshko” and it’s the middle of the XVIII century. Then, somewhere in the middle of the XX century, there appeared “cool” now among young people it is absolutely up to date.”