The Nobel prize in physiology or medicine in 2016 was awarded to Japanese scientist, Yoshinori Osumi. Professor, Tokyo Institute of technology was awarded for the study of mechanisms of autophagy – the degradation and recycling of cells.
The decision to award the prestigious Japanese international award reported in the press release on the website of the Nobel Committee. YouTube is being broadcast live from the ceremony.
Osumi discovered and explored the mechanisms underlying autophagy (“samopoedaniya”; from the Greek. – “he”; phagos – “eat”) is a fundamental process of degradation and recycling of cellular components. The term appeared in the 1960’s when scientists discovered that the cell is capable of destroying its own contents. Osumi studied the recycling of cellular wastes in lysosome – membrane surrounded vesicles.
The researchers used for their experiments Baker’s yeast. Osumi was able to identify the genes required for autophagy, and restore the entire mechanism of this process. As a result, the Japanese have found that such sophisticated equipment used in human cells.
Open Osumi has allowed scientists to understand the importance of autophagy in many physiological processes such as adaptation to starvation or response to infection. It turned out that mutations in the genes of autophagy can cause disease, and the process of “samopoedaniya” cells is a component of several diseases, including cancer and neurological diseases.
As noted by RBC, 107 annual awards in medicine and physiology, is only the 39th winner of the award alone. In most cases, the Nobel prize in this field to get groups of scientists. Osumi became the sixth Japanese in the history of the Nobel prize in medicine and the 23rd Japanese in 115 years of the Nobel prize in General.
Osumi was born in the Japanese city of Fukuoka in 1945. In 1974 he graduated from Tokyo University, then for three years studied at the Rockefeller University in new York, and then finally returned to Japan. In 1988 he established his research group. Since 2009 he teaches at the Tokyo Institute of technology.
Last year the Nobel prize in physiology and medicine, received a team of biologists: the Chinese Yu The Japanese Satoshi Omura and Irish-American William Campbell. Scientists presented the award for the development of new methods of dealing with serious illnesses.
The Nobel prize in physiology or medicine is awarded annually since 1901. In 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1921, 1925, 1940, 1941 and 1942 the awarding ceremony was conducted. Representatives of Russia award in these disciplines was awarded to Ivan Pavlov (1904) and Ilya Mechnikov (1908). As the winners of the other Nobel prizes laureates in physiology or medicine is awarded a diploma and a medal, and a monetary reward.
The Nobel prize was launched in Stockholm on Monday, 3 October. First announce the laureates in physiology and medicine. Nobel prize in physics will be awarded October 4, chemistry – 5 Oct, for literature – October 13. The peace prize will be awarded in Oslo on 7 October, the winner of the prize for Economics will be announced on 10 October.