The Nobel prize in physics was awarded to three scientists for the study of topological phases of matter
Nobel prize of 2016 in the field of physics on Tuesday, October 4, awarded to three British scientists working in the US, Duncan Haldane, Michael Kosterlitz and David Thouless. This was announced by the Nobel Committee of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Sweden. The names of winners in a press release on the website of the Nobel Committee.
Briton Duncan Haldane and Americans of Scottish descent David Towles and Michael Kosterlitz received the award for “the theoretical discovery of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter”, the report said.
“Scientists opened the door to an unknown world, where matter can take strange state. They used advanced mathematical methods to explore unusual phases or States of matter, color,” – said in a press release, which quotes RBC. We are talking about superconductors, superredcloth and thin magnetic films. The work of scientists can be further used in science and electronics, specified in the message.
Last year’s winners in physics have become Takaaki kajita (Japan) and Arthur MacDonald (Canada) “for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, indicating they have mass”.
The winners of the Nobel prize in physics as the winners in other categories will share the eight million Swedish kronor (about 937 thousand dollars).
Only since 1901 held the 109 Nobel prize in physics. The total number of laureates in this area, is about 200. Of these, only two times Nobel Committee awarded the prize to a woman – Marie Curie (in collaboration with husband Pierre Curie and colleague Henri Becquerel) and Mary Geppert-Mayer (in cooperation with the German Hans Jensen, and the American Eugene Vigneron).
In the category “physics” for all this time was awarded 47 individual researchers, 32 of the award issued to a team of two scientists, 30 awards to three researchers.
According to the rules, Nobel prize in physics and chemistry may be awarded only to authors of articles published in peer-reviewed print. In addition, the opening has to be really significant and universally recognized by the international scientific community, so the experimenters get the award of most theorists.
As recalled by TASS, physics is the most successful for Russian scientists nomination: ten times they were in it the Nobel prize. In 2003 Alexey Abrikosov and Vitaly Ginzburg together with the British Anthony Lagatta received this prestigious award “for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors”.
Nobel prize winner 2000 Zhores Alferov awarded the prize for developing the concept of semiconductor heterostructures and its use in optoelectronics and electronics of high speed. In 2010 awards for creating the world’s thinnest material, graphene, awarded now working in the UK pupils of the Russian scientific school Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov.
On the eve of the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine for 2016 was awarded to 71-year-old Japanese scientist, asinari Osumi. It was awarded for discoveries in the field of autophagy – the process by which the internal components of cells are delivered inside lysosomes (in mammals) or vacuoles (yeast cells) and subjected them to degradation.
Nobel prize winners in chemistry will be announced on October 5, literature – October 13. The winner of the peace prize will be named in Oslo on 7 October, the winner of the prize for Economics will be announced on 10 October. The awarding ceremony will traditionally take place in Stockholm on 10 December, the day of the death of the founder of the Nobel prize – Swedish entrepreneur and inventor Alfred Nobel.